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托福阅读真题100篇原文+题目(八十)

2018-12-04 12:33 | |
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  阅读部分也是托福考试的一大难点,其实托福阅读提升的障碍主要集中在两个方面,一个是时间,一个是理解。大家要在有限的时间里,快速的阅读并且作对题目。那么同学们在平时的复习中,就要多找一些真题来加强练习了,新东方在线托福网为大家推荐的是托福阅读真题100篇。

【点击查看托福阅读真题100篇原文+题目汇总】

  PASSAGE 80

  A survey is a study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire that provides information concerning how people think and act. In the United States, the best-known surveys are the Gallup poll and the Harris poll. As anyone who watches the news during presidential campaigns knows, these polls have become an important part of political life in the United States.

  North Americans are familiar with the many person-on-the-street interviews on local television news shows. While such interviews can be highly entertaining, they are not necessarily an accurate indication of public opinion. First, they reflect the opinions of only those people who appear at a certain location. Thus, such samples can be biased in favor of commuters, middle-class shoppers, or factory workers, depending on which area the newspeople select. Second, television interviews tend to attract outgoing people who are willing to appear on the air, while they frighten away others who may feel intimidated by a camera. A survey must be based on a precise, representative sampling if it is to genuinely reflect a broad range of the population.

  In preparing to conduct a survey, sociologists must exercise great care in the wording of questions. An effective survey question must be simple and clear enough for people to understand it. It must also be specific enough so that there are no problems in interpreting the results. Even questions that are less structured must be carefully phrased in order to elicit the type of information desired. Surveys can be indispensable sources of information, but only if the sampling is done properly and the questions are worded accurately.

  There are two main forms of surveys: the interview and the questionnaire. Each of these forms of survey research has its advantages. An interviewer can obtain a high response rate because people find it more difficult to turn down a personal request for an interview than to throw away a written questionnaire. In addition, an interviewer can go beyond written questions and probe for a subject's underlying feelings and reasons. However, questionnaires have the advantage of being cheaper and more consistent.

  1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

  (A) The history of surveys in North America

  (B) The principles of conducting surveys

  (C) Problems associated with interpreting surveys

  (D) The importance of polls in American political life

  2. The word they in line 8 refers to

  (A) North Americans

  (B) news shows

  (C) interviews

  (D) opinions

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