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托福阅读真题100篇原文+题目(八十二)

2018-12-04 12:33 | |
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  阅读部分也是托福考试的一大难点,其实托福阅读提升的障碍主要集中在两个方面,一个是时间,一个是理解。大家要在有限的时间里,快速的阅读并且作对题目。那么同学们在平时的复习中,就要多找一些真题来加强练习了,新东方在线托福网为大家推荐的是托福阅读真题100篇。

【点击查看托福阅读真题100篇原文+题目汇总】

  PASSAGE 82

  Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960's but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced back to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen.

  Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the early following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may imprint on it instead. Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child development — the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether complex cognitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods. For example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child's capacity to acquire it reduced?

  Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and its parents. He argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach, care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby.

  1. What was Darwin's contribution to ethology?

  (A) Darwin improved on the original principles of ethology.

  (B) Darwin was the professor who taught Lorenz and Tinbergen.

  (C) Darwin's work provided the basis for ethology.

  (D) Darwin was the first person to apply ethological theory to children.

  2. The word diverse in line 6 is closest in meaning to

  (A) small

  (B) varied

  (C) wild

  (D) particular

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